The most important combination of flour dough and also the most important bread composition is dough. In fact, flour refers to powder or particles that are obtained from the grinding and grinding of starch, grains, underground roots and legumes. Although today a variety of bread from different flours including barley, rye, corn and … Wheat flour is preferably used for bread production in many cultures, and flour is used in untitled recipes of wheat flour. Otherwise, they are either gluten-free or gluten-free. The most important properties of flour that can affect dough processing and baking of bread and finally the quality of the bread produced are: protein content, ash content and particle size.
Protein is one of the most important characteristics of wheat, both technologically and chemically and nutritionally important. Several factors affect the amount of wheat protein such as race, rainfall or irrigation at ripening, soil type and fertilization according to the amount of wheat protein, flour reaches different uses, for example for bulky and moulded breads, the optimal protein content is estimated between 12 and 13 percent It has been naturally found that for flat breads that are not actually bulky and lack tissue, protein levels can be placed at a lower level. In fact, the main factor in improving the quality of flour and bread is the quantity and quality of flour gluten, which is essentially the main protein composition of wheat. Because gluten absorbs three times its own weight of water, creates a gluten network through mixing action, which in fact causes viscoelastic properties of dough while at the same time entraps the gases of fermentation. These gases expand along with water vapor in the cooking stage and open the gluten network thus creating the volume and texture of bread. Therefore, flours used to prepare a variety of breads, especially bulky breads such as baguettes, toast and hamburgers, should be the optimal quantity and quality of its protein in order to keep the gases produced from fermentation in the dough mass.
Types of flour
Whole wheat flour
Whole wheat flour is the same as wholemeal flour. Traditional sangik flours are of this type. Whole wheat flour is used especially in the preparation of whole or dicystic biscuits which are known as golden stem biscuits in Iran. In the preparation of these biscuits, grain and wheat bran are used together and are very nutritious.
Dried or bran flour
Flour, with about 85% extraction grade, is applicable for lavash, taftoon and barbarian breads.
Flour, which is made from most of the endosperm and some of the shell. Star Flour is produced with a bran rate of about 18% and is used to meet industrial needs such as fancy bread and various kinds of cakes and pastries. Starstar flour can be produced in two different groups to prepare a variety of fancy breads, bulky and semi-bulky products. These flours with suitable color, protein and ash are used to produce a variety of products. The products made of this flour have a flexible and spongy texture.
White flour or triple zero flour or null flour
Flour, which is made from the central part of wheat endosperm and the degree of bran extraction is above 25%. (At least 23%), this flour is suitable for the preparation of a variety of confectionery products. In our country, this flour is also used to make pasta. Nol’s flour used in pasta production has larger particles. Nol’s flour, white flour confectionery and triple zero flour are equivalent to each other, which is high bran of this type of flour and is suitable for both sweets and breads.
Flour, which is obtained from milling and sifting barley, of course, can be used from the remaining factories to prepare peeled oats or oatmeal for this purpose. The barley grains are pressed with cylindrical metal mills after being roasted in the factory, and they are grinded and floured. After preparation of barley flour it can be separated by special sieve and with different percentages, i.e. flour like wheat flour can be produced completely or bran is separated.
Application: Mix barley flour with wheat flour and use it to produce bread in different bakeries and sell bread made from the combination of barley flour and wheat as barley bread or diet bread. Sometimes for the production of some cakes and cookies, a percentage of barley flour add to their ingredients. It goes without saying that barley flour is very rich in protein, and therefore they use barley for animal feed.
Semolina is a product of a special wheat mill called durum wheat. Semolina is the main ingredient in pasta production and has natural yellow pigments and antioxidants. It has a high amount of vitamins, proteins, minerals and beneficial nutrients that increase the quality of pasty products that are produced with them.
Semolina flour is used for pasta production and has amber yellow color due to its beta-carotene pigment. The particles of this flour are much larger than nol flour particles and its protein content is higher than other types of flour. As a result, starch remains in the kernel of flour and pasta does not stick together during cooking.
Rye is a kind of cereal plant native to Central Asia and is found in Syria, Armenia and other countries.
To prepare corn flour, first the corn kernels are separated from its cluster and they are also sprinkled in the flour factory. Seeds are dried to increase their shelf life, and if flour is to be prepared from them, they will soak the seeds for a while until their thick crust and surface become a little soft. They then rub them with special mills to remove the superficial shell from their inner brain. Eventually, the kernel inside the corn is dried and grinded again to obtain a solid corn flour.